Brazilian mushroom cultivation techniques

First, the biological characteristics of Brazilian mushrooms Brazil mushroom is a kind of saprophytic bacteria occurred in summer and autumn, requiring high temperature, humidity, ventilation and environmental conditions.

Moisture requirements: the optimum moisture content of the culture material is 55-60% (water ratio 1:1.4), the optimal water content of the cover soil is 60-65%, and the air humidity of the mushroom house is 75-85%.

Nutritional requirements: The strain can decompose crop straw (such as rice straw), animal manure (such as cow dung), sawdust, bagasse, etc. as carbon and nitrogen sources. Temperature requirements: mycelial development temperature is 10-37 °C, suitable temperature 23-27 °C. The growth temperature of the fruiting body is 20-33°C and the suitable temperature is 21-26°C.

Light requirements: Light does not need to grow mycelium, but sunlight can indirectly affect the temperature of the culture material.

Air requirements: The strain is aerobic, fresh air is required for mycelial growth and fruit body growth.

pH value: It can grow in the range of pH 4.5-8, and the optimum pH is 6.5-7.5.

Second, cultivation techniques can refer to the cultivation methods and techniques of Agaricus bisporus.

1. Culture formula

A. 1500 kg of straw, 1,300 kg of cow dung, 100 kg of wheat hull or peanut cake, 18 kg of urea, 50 kg of calcium carbonate or gypsum powder, 50 kg of superphosphate, 25 kg of lime powder, pH 7-7.5.

B. 750 kg of straw, 750 kg of bagasse, 1300 kg of cow dung, 100 kg of wheat hull or peanut cake, 18 kg of urea, 50 kg of calcium carbonate or gypsum powder, 50 kg of superphosphate, 30 kg of lime powder, pH 7-7.5.

2. The cultivation season and culture materials
treatment methods have been proved by more than two years practice, spring is low temperature and rain, the quality of culture materials is poor, the mycelium growth is slow after sowing, and the high temperature is easy to die mushrooms and the occurrence of pests and diseases in the later period, and the quality is low. Therefore, spring is not suitable for cultivation.

According to the characteristics of the city's climate, the best date for the cultivation of materials should be adjusted to August 20-25, in order to win the mushroom from the beginning of November to the end of January of the following year. Fermentation after cultivation should use secondary fermentation technology. Composting and disinfection procedures: pre-wetting for 2 days → building a stack for 4 days → 3 days for a single turn → 3 days for a second turning → 3 turns for 2 days → natural warming up for 2 days → 60°C pasteurization and maintenance 10 Hour → temperature 48-52 °C for 72 hours, small ventilation every day 1-2 times, every few minutes.

3. The standard color of the culture material is brown-brown, uniform, elastic, about 65% moisture content, pH 7.5, no odor, with a rich material aroma, the material and the bed frame covered with cotton wool-like addiction Hot microbial colonies.

4, cultivation and management

(1) After the secondary fermentation is finished, open the doors and windows. When the temperature of the culture material is reduced to about 30°C, spread the culture materials evenly in the middle three layers. The thickness is 30, 32, and 35 cm from top to bottom, respectively. Loose, if the material is dry, it can be sprayed with cold boiled lime water and turned over again to make it wet and dry evenly. If the material is wet, the material can fluff loose and increase the ventilation and reduce the moisture content of the material. Leveling material surface, the thickness of the material layer is controlled at about 20-25cm. When the material temperature is stable at about 28°C, the seeding rate should be doubled compared to Agaricus bisporus. Use 2 bottles of wheat seeds per 1.5 square meters, spread and partially lightly turned into the material surface, compacted and leveled.

(2) After 2-3 days of sowing, the doors and windows should be properly closed to maintain high humidity to promote germination. After 3 days, when the mycelium grows white and grows on the material, the ventilation volume is appropriately increased. After 6-8 days of sowing, the basic cover of the mycelium gradually increases the ventilation volume, which promotes the hyphae to be eaten neatly, and the mushroom house is relatively The humidity is controlled at about 80%. After 18-20 days of sowing, the hyphae can be contaminated to the bottom of the bed.

(3) Reconstituted soil When the mycelium grows to the bottom of the material, the soil is reconstituted. The reconstituted material is a mixture of local red loam and pupa (or husk ash, coal slag) in a ratio of 7:1. For every 100 square meters of complex material, add 40% carbendazim 0.5 kg. After pre-wetting for 4 to 5 days before re-cultivation, the water content is 60 to 65%. Generally, the hand-kneading can be used as a group, and it is advisable to loosen and loosen it.

(4) Management of re-cultivation for 12 days after fruiting, when the hyphae climbed onto the soil and sprayed on the surface, the surface was kept moist and the amount of water sprayed was 0.9-1.35 kg/m2 each time. Usually the buds appeared about 30 days after sowing. The water spray on the bed should be mainly intermittent spraying, supplemented by light spraying, insisting on the principle that a tidal mushroom sprays heavy water once and dealing with the relationship between water spray, ventilation, and moisturizing to achieve high yield, stable production, and high quality.

(5) Harvest When the fruiting body grows to the standard size, it should be picked in time. Grasp the steady harvest of tidal mushrooms, the harvest of the mushrooms, the middle of the mushroom, and the principle of speedy harvesting of the tidal tail mushrooms. When picking mushrooms, you should first press down and then rotate it to avoid harming the surrounding mushrooms. After harvesting mushrooms, you should remove the mushrooms, dead mushrooms and old roots, and make up the soil in time to keep the bed level and sanitary.

Third, the product processing: After the harvest of fresh mushrooms, can be the whole flower or from the cover to the handle cut in half, placed in the drying oven to the finished product. The dry smell is fragrant and the fungus is white. It is packed in transparent plastic bags, and the outer packaging is made of cardboard or according to customer requirements.

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