Postharvest processing technology of hazelnut

(1) When the artificial harvesting is carried out, the fruit with pods taken off must be dislocated. The dislocation method is as follows:
1. The fermented and dismantled stacking hazelnuts will automatically dislocate the hazelnuts after fermenting. The method is to stack the harvested fruits with 40 to 50 cm thickness and cover the straw or other coverings to ferment the preserved fruit for 1 to 2 days. During stacking, check the temperature and humidity in the stack. If the temperature and humidity are too high, it will cause excessive fermentation, causing the shell to be too dark and lose its luster. In severe cases, the hazelnut will be inedible. Therefore, special attention must be paid to prevent it. After stacking and fermenting, hit the fruit pods with a wooden stick and the nuts can be dislocated. Manual dislocation can also be used, but it is more expensive.
2. After knocking and dislocating, the collected hazelnuts can be placed on the piled fruit field to be dried and then tapped with a wooden stick to dislocate them. Mechanized harvested hazelnuts did not dislocate this process because hazelnuts had been automatically dislocated.
(2) The hazelnuts that have been de-sterilized have impurities such as dried fruit pieces, leaf fragments, clods, etc., as well as empty grains, insects, etc., so they need to be removed. Removing impurities is to make it more pure and meet the requirements of commodity hazelnuts. Specific steps are as follows:
First, use a cleaner to further remove the branches and leaves that are mixed in the hazelnuts. The cleaning machine works on the principle of winnowing. It blows light broken leaves and dried fruit pieces, and heavy clods and stones fall down to separate from the hazelnuts.
Second, wash it. Wash with water and remove the dirt and sand from the hazelnuts.
(3) The moisture content of dried and harvested hazelnuts is 20% to 35%, plus water washing, which increases the moisture content of hazelnuts. In order to facilitate storage and further processing, it must be dried to reduce its moisture content to 6% to 7.5%. Using soil method to dry, the cost is lower.
1. Dry the cleaned hazelnuts in the sun and let them dry. However, it should not be exposed to sunlight to avoid cracking of the shell and impatience of storage. When drying, turn the hazelnuts to dry them evenly.
2. Natural ventilation Drying Take a dry shed, use a board and a mat to form a paved surface, 70-80 cm above the ground, and store the width so that it is convenient for turning. It is shaded with a mat so that it is both airy, shaded, and free from sun exposure. Spread the hazelnuts on the paving mats. The thickness of the hazelnuts should not exceed 5 cm. Turn 1 or 2 times a day. In the temperature of 18 °C ~ 22 °C, after 6 to 8 days drying, the moisture content of hazelnuts can be reduced to 5% to 7%, you can collect and store. In the drying process, in the event of rainy days, it should be dry indoors. If the soil in the rural areas in the north is dry, hazelnuts can be dried.
3. Drying with a dryer Dryers in developed countries use hazelnuts for drying. The efficiency is high and the finished product after drying is of good quality. Use electric or diesel power to blow hot air into the dryer. The large one can dry 2 tons of hazelnut once, and the small one can dry 0.5 tons of hazelnut once. The temperature in the desiccator is 36°C to 40°C, and the maximum temperature is 45°C or less. Due to the different moisture content of hazelnuts, the drying time is also different, usually 9 to 27 hours.

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