Crawfish Procambarus seed breeding and breeding

The crawfish Procambarus, also known as red shrimp, crayfish, is native to the United States and is an important species of freshwater prawn culture in the United States. Crayfish belongs to the large family of arthropods and belongs to crustaceans along with lobsters, spiny lobsters, crabs, river shrimp, and prawn. During World War II, crayfish were introduced into China from Japan. After a long period of expansion, the population increased and the living space expanded. Now, it has become an important resource in China's freshwater prawn, widely distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. In 2006, the area of ​​breeding and breeding of Procambarus clarkii in Anji County, Zhejiang Province reached 432 mu, which achieved significant benefits. The Crawfish crawfish aquaculture and breeding trials in the 12-mu pond in the county's Qushan Township are summarized as follows:
First, materials and methods
1. Pond conditions: 5 test ponds, 2 acres to 3 acres each, a total of 12 acres, water depth of 1 meter. Adequate water supply, fresh water, no pollution, easy access to water. Some areas are like swamps, with different shades, occupying about 1/4 of the total area of ​​the ponds. The surrounding walls of the pond are made of cement bricks, cement boards and other materials to prevent escape. There are more than 3 meters of flat area inside the walls. There are artificial caves such as bamboo tubes, tiles and plastic tubes in the pond.
2. Preparation before laying seedlings:
(1) Clearance of clear ponds: Drain the pool water for drying ponds 1 month before stocking, and use 100 grams of lime slurry per acre for about 10 days before stocking.
(2) Influent and fertilizing: After the pool is filled with water up to 50 cm deep, the fermented organic manure is applied at an application rate of about 300 kg per mu to cultivate basic food organisms.
(3) planting plants: "How much shrimp, see plants." The species that C. Procambarus feeds on aquatic plants include Vallisneria, Hydrilla verticillata, Eichhornia crassipes, water hyacinth, and aquatic peanuts, as well as terrestrial grasses. The area of ​​planted aquatic plants does not exceed 2/3 of the total pond area. should.
(4) Feeding snails: Snails are also animal feeds of crawfish, and must be placed on the snails before stocking. They should be stocked at 200 kg to 300 kg per acre, and then added gradually as needed.
3. Shrimp stocking:
From mid-March to mid-June, 1050 kg of shrimp seedlings were put into 12 acres of ponds one after another. When transporting shrimp seedlings, pay attention to the use of transportation tools to prevent dehydration and extrusion.
4. Feed feeding:
In addition to the "grass, cast snail," the raw Procambarus clarkii needs to be fed with artificial feed. The feed should be fed with the following points.
(1) According to the nutritional requirements of different growth stages of Procambarus clarkii, do a good job of bait combinations. During the shrimp seedling stage, it mainly feeds on insects, cladocera, copepods, and aquatic insect larvae. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to cultivating basic baits and supplement them with artificial feed. During this period, powdered feeds such as barley, wheat bran, and bean cake were used. After May, it is the rapid growth stage of Procambarus clarkii, and it is the key stage of gonadal development in broodstock of Procambarus clarkii. It should be fed with wheat bran, bean cake and tender green feed, pumpkin, hawthorn and melon skin. Supplemented with animal feed. August-September is the overwintering period for the accumulated nutrition of Procambarus clarkii. At this time, more animal feeds, such as fish, earthworms and animal waste, should be fed. Dehulling must be added to the feed to promote the growth of lobsters.
(2) Feeding methods: Feeding twice a day in the morning and evening, feeding in the late evening, and feeding the food to account for 60% to 70% of the total feeding amount. The feed must be taken in a qualitative, quantitative, and timed manner. , fixed point method, feeding uniform. The specific feeding amount depends on the weather, water temperature, water quality, and the active eating conditions of the Procambarus clarkii. The daily feeding amount of animal feed can account for 8%~12% of the weight of Procambarus clarkii, and 3%~5% for dry feed or compound feed.
5. Daily management:
(1) Feeding management: Add a variety of vitamins in the feed, immune polysaccharides, etc. Animal waste is best cooked after feeding, in the case of insufficient water in the pool, we must add terrestrial grass feed In summer, it is necessary to remove the uneaten grass so as not to affect the quality of water.
(2) Water quality regulation: keep the amount of dissolved oxygen in shrimp ponds above 5 mg/l, pH value of 7~8.5, transparency about 35 cm, change the water every 15 days to 20 days, and change the amount of water for ponds each time. About 1/5 to 1/8; spill lime water every 20 days, each time the amount of 3 kg to 5 kg per acre; every half a month Quanchiposa photosynthetic bacteria once, adjust the pool of ammonia nitrogen content. The pond water level should not be too deep, usually about 1 meter. The water level in the high temperature season and wintering period can be deeper. Keep the water level in the pond stable, and do not go high or low. Visit the pond once a day sooner or later, and take appropriate measures in case of abnormalities.
(3) Strengthen the management of shelled shrimp: promote the concentration of shelling of Procambarus clarkii by feeding and changing water. Immediately after shelling, high-quality feed was added to prevent the killing of Procambarus clarkii due to insufficient feed.
(4) supplement dressing top dressing: During feeding, depending on the transparency of the pool water timely dressing topdressing, usually every half a month make-up topdressing, topdressing to fermented organic manure based fertilizer amount of 15 kg to 20 kg per mu.
(5) Prevention of disease and escape: The pond should be strictly disinfected before releasing the seedlings. When the shrimp is stocked, it is bathed with 3% to 4% saline for 10 minutes. During the cultivation period, quicklime and photosynthetic bacteria are regularly spilled. Once the substrate modifier, the feed to be fed is fresh, and when there are harmful organisms in the pool, it must be promptly removed.
(6) Fishing: The Procambarus clarkii grows faster. After artificial feeding for 1 month to 2 months, if the shrimp size is above 30 grams, it can be caught and listed. When catching, take a small catch and catch it in time. Fishing methods can be harvested with tools such as shrimp cages, ground cage nets, and hand-grip nets, and can also be captured by water and finally caught in dry pools.
(7) Breeding measures: As of the end of 2006, the farmers participating in the experiment started to catch most of the adult shrimp and left 200 kg of shrimp in the pond. A large number of shrimps were successively bred, and they have grown to about 1.5 cm. good.
Second, the test results
1. Output and Output Value: From June to December, a total of 2520 kilograms of shrimp were harvested, with an output value of 60,480 yuan; 1000 kilograms of shrimps, with an output value of 60,000 yuan. The total output value is 120480 yuan.
2. Economic benefits: The total cost is 56400 yuan, and the escape prevention wall is 30,000 yuan. The annual depreciation fee is 5,000 yuan, the seed is 21,000 yuan, the pond is rented for 2400 yuan, the feed is 18,000 yuan, and the hydropower is artificially 10,000 yuan. Net income is 64,080 yuan, and the net income is 5,340 yuan.
Third, discussion and summary
1. The market price of Procambarus clarkii is constantly rising. The highest wholesale price has reached 30 yuan/kg, and supply is still in short supply. The "Eleventh Five-Year Plan for National Fisheries Development" clearly stated that it is necessary to give prominence to the construction of freshwater aquaculture production and processing bases with strong international competitive advantages such as freshwater crayfish. Farming Procambarus clarkii has become a good project with less investment, high benefit, and simple operation.
2. The Procambarus clarkii must be planted with good grass and put snails. This kind of good grass can create a good habitat and shelling environment for Procambarus clarkii, and it can also meet the needs of Procambarus clarkii feeding a large number of plants. The release of snails on the one hand can purify the bottom, on the one hand can supplement animal food.
3. When catching fish, you must catch large fishes. When catching shrimps of the upper specifications, fish should be harvested in time. This can reduce the density of shrimp in ponds and help accelerate the growth.
4. Breeding broodstock species, to choose females, most of the males can be caught, because the male prawn has been injected into the female seminal vesicle of the spermatozoa early by the stabbing thorn, sperm can be stored in the seminal vesicle can be 2 Months to 8 months, the egg can still be fertilized.
5. The feed to be fed should be fresh and the animal waste should be cooked and fed to prevent the occurrence of disease. The dehulling element must be added in the feed because there is no special compound feed at present, and adding the dehulling element can promote the growth of the shelling.

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